Can be pruned. Doing this makes the upper end less unsightly, and I figure it makes the lower end less prone to rot. I potted it in regular potting soil/perlite mix, watered it and put it in by the French doors to our deck. ... Milk-Bone Mini's Biscuits Peanut Butter Flavor 15oz. It is almost a set-it-and-forget-it plant. I do have some small stones in the base for water drainage. The Polaris cat scratching post is made to delight and challenge any cat, keeping them active with a wide assortment of activities. Care for it is similar to other succulents - allow it to get plenty of bright, indirect light (some partial sun is fine, a south facing window is ideal). The initial piece was about six inches tall. I am concerned about my pot becoming too small as it grows taller. It grew like a weed and got ... read moremore arms. This plant is said to grow outdoors in the following regions: On Jan 28, 2017, Don_in_CT from W Hartford, CT wrote: To propagate at our university greenhouse, I use secateurs to cut a long section of E. trigona into 5 to 10 inch long sections. Strictly adhering to zero/low maintenance policy, it is left in the outdoors - no pampering at all. Now I have a Skull And Crossbones symbol posted on my 8-foot E. trigona. If yours becomes too large, cut off one of its arms and start another plant. I have had this plant for about 10 years. The stem itself is dark green with V-shaped light green patterns. African milk tree has all the best characteristics of a succulent and cactus. Euphorbia trigona or African milk tree is a perennial ornamental house plant growing up to 3 meter tall. YES. ave leaves on them, most will typically fall off when treated this way. asy to grow plant that fits very well with my cleisto cactus, opuntia fragilis cactus, Hawaiian plumeria, rubber tree, jade, hoya, lucky bamboo, Uinta basin cactus , and avocado tree. Fresh Step Multi-Cat Scented Litter with the Power of Febreze Clumping Cat Litter . It was about 30 or so years old but HUGE at the main stem. Let the plant settle for a few days before watering. Male wildcats from Yemen measure 46–57 cm (18–22 in) in head-to-body length with a 25–32 cm (9.8–12.6 in) long tail; females were slightly smaller measuring 50–51 cm (20–20 in) in head-to-body length with a 25–28 cm (9.8–11.0 in) long tail. This is such a cool plant! Exclusive Subaru VIP offer for ASPCA Guardians & Founders. It just wants a place in bright indirect light for at least 4-6 hours a day and then needs to be watered sparingly. It has a milky sap that may be poisonous and cause skin irritation. Bead Tree (China Ball Tree, Paradise Tree, Persian Lilac, White Cedar, Japanese Bead Tree, Texas Umbrella Tree, Pride-of-India, Chinaberry Tree) | Scientific Names: Melia azedarach | Family: Meliaceae Fast growing small Euphorbia and easy care. Ships from and sold by Exotic Cactus. The African milk tree is a perennial plant native to Central Africa. Both females and males range in … The Euphorbia trigona gets its common name ‘African milk tree’ from the toxic white sap in its stems.Many species of succulents in the genus Euphorbia have this milky latex substance.Cutting or puncturing the plant causes milk to leak. The stem and branches can have two or three sides. It’s only natural to wonder if one descended from the other, which brings us to this month’s misconception. It is the Euphorbia trigona “Rubra” we think, because of the reddish leaves. My African milk tree cactus looks otherwise fine, except that most of its leaves have turned a pale yellow and fallen off. I keep it out of direct light now and the new growth is fine. My specimen, now about two years old, has numerous white spots along the stems as evidence! I bring it in and put it under plant lights for winter. What is the cause? to small a pot? On Jun 8, 2012, Hacienda1712 from Las Vegas, NV wrote: I was told sunlight would burn this plant, it's been kept indoors with almost no sun for 6 years now and looks great, grown up from 4' to 6' now. At that point, it appears to go dormant, and I cut way back on watering. On Jan 31, 2007, cactuskat from Yuma, AZ (Zone 9b) wrote: I have had my plant for about 15 years and just found out the name of it, thanks to Dave's Garden. On Feb 3, 2015, Nate1the1great1 from Penrose, CO wrote: I got a 8 inch cutting a year ago and it has grown into a monter towering over 2 feet with 7 arms i have mine in a large sized pot and just stopped growing this week i LOVE this (cactus). I grow a variety of plants and didn't have this one. Its bitter and then things are not good!! Some branches have spread and hit the floor, I just tied them up together for a while and they're now growing straight up again. I've always put it outside in summer but it's gotten too heavy for my husband & I (senior citizens) to move so I've started new plants for me and friends and family, but I hate to kill it so would like to find a new home for it. I bring it in and put it under plant lights for winter. African Golden Cat (Caracal aurata)African Wildcat (Felis lybica)Black-footed Cat (Felis nigripes)Caracal (Caracal caracal)Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)Jungle Cat (Felis chaus)Leopard (Panthera pardus)Lion (Panthera leo)Sand Cat (Felis margarita)Serval (Leptailurus serval) Milk doesn't part of necessary cat nutrition and many cats suffer stomach upsets or other related problems because their owner thought that they were giving them a treat. Pokey suckers. On Apr 17, 2013, mrdiesel from Torrington, CT wrote: two years ago my stepdaughter gave me an 8" cutting of her "cactus".. which turned out to be E.Trigona. It was in a 30" outdoor pot and came in in the winter. I had decided which hospital to go to, and probably should have, but I did not. gets plenty of light but not direct. On May 17, 2015, myself100 from Saint Albans, NY wrote: This plant is dangerous. 36 members have or want this plant for trade. Description. more arms. In Stock. Underwritten by United States Fire Insurance Company, Toxic to Dogs, Toxic to Cats, Toxic to Horses. Even though this one is fairly common I love it. You don't need to water it at all, just let the rain do its job. Why the Euphorbia Cactus is Called African Milk Tree. Cadet Stuffed Shin Bone Peanut Butter Dog Treat - 3-4" $2.99. Mine was store-bought at 6" tall; one year later, it is 3 ft tall and 2 ft wide. On Feb 27, 2014, WillyB23 from Haskell, AR wrote: This is a wonderful and hardy plant. Considering where it natively comes from, this perennial plant can go a little frugal when it comes to watering. Privacy Policy  Legal Info. The African Milk Tree is a member of the genus Euphorbia and part of the Euphorbiaceae family. https://www.thespruce.com/african-milk-tree-profile-4846360 Euphorbia Species, African Milk Tree, Candelabra Cactus, African Milk Bush, High Chaparral (Euphorbia trigona) by Calif_Sue Oct 12, 2006 10:22 PM. Makes a great container plant. As a houseplant, the African milk tree typically grows between 2 to 4 feet tall. Pop Diesel. The sap is a skin irritant so wear gloves when handling. 4 Gardening Resolutions That You Can Actually Keep. The white sap bleeds from any cuts on the plant, and I "accidentally" licked my finger and ingested about 1 drop. Explore {{searchView.params.phrase}} by color family {{familyColorButtonText(colorFamily.name)}} This is a sticky latex, often toxic or irritating to the skin (most cacti have clear sap, rarely irritating to the skin). A milk bush is a shrub that is native to northeastern, southern, and central Africa and that also grows throughout other semi-arid tropical regions, including parts of India. I love the form. when I was given this plant as a cutting, i didn't wait a couple days for the cutting to callous over, I just planted and watered. African Milk Tree, High Chaparall, Cathedral Cactus, Abyssinian Euphorbia. African milk bush flowers are green to yellowish-green, mostly concealed by lance-shaped bracts that are purplish-green above and reddish-purple beneath. I have it in potting soil and a medium size pot,but I think it is time to transplant it. My friends was her Aunts and 7 ft tall. It looks like a nice cactus but other persons might not know the danger and get poisoned like I did. On Nov 12, 2003, Happenstance from Northern California, CA wrote: Like all Euphorbia HANDLE WITH CARE, the latex/sap is dangerous and can cause skin rash, itching and general discomfort. You better look for aphids that may infest this species sometimes. On Aug 6, 2015, lydarose from Tampa, FL wrote: I am a freak for euphorbias. Strictly adhering to zero/low maintenance policy, it is left in the outdoors - no pampering at all. Message and data rates may apply. Drought-tolerant; suitable for xeriscaping, All parts of plant are poisonous if ingested, Handling plant may cause skin irritation or allergic reaction. The jungle cat (Felis chaus), also called reed cat and swamp cat, is a medium-sized cat native to the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia and southern China.It inhabits foremost wetlands like swamps, littoral and riparian areas with dense vegetation. Download Pdf - Lists of African Cats. It has a milky sap that may be poisonous and cause skin irritation. African milk tree care: Euphorbia trigona tips. On Jan 4, 2014, MisterETrigona from Angier, NC wrote: Euphorbia trigona ... poisonous, not in a strict sense of the word. Known by many other names, including pencil cactus , firestick plant, and Indian tree spurge, the plant can reach a height of between 12 and 20 feet (3.6 and 6 meters). I rubbed the sap on my wrists thinking it was good and later on my eyes were in so much pain and I couldn't see ( I might have gotten some in by rubbing my eyes) Water when the soil h On Jul 11, 2003, Monocromatico from Rio de Janeiro,Brazil (Zone 11) wrote: It´s not a Cactus (from the Cactaceae family). This item: 4" Plant Euphorbia TRIGONA RUBRA African Milk Tree Rare Cactus Plant Exotic Succulent $14.99. it's a great e... read moreasy to grow plant that fits very well with my cleisto cactus, opuntia fragilis cactus, Hawaiian plumeria, rubber tree, jade, hoya, lucky bamboo, Uinta basin cactus , and avocado tree. Loss of appetite, excessive thirst, weakness, colic, trembling, sweating, loss of coordination, difficulty breathing, depression, bloody diarrhea, seizures, death. As for sun exposure, don't worry too much about it either; my plant receives 4 hours of sunlight per day, and I've seen larger plants under full sun. Scientific Classification. Central Phoenix -- I have an Aloe Christmas Carol, ... read more, I just found one upside down on our patio and put him ... read more, Flocks to the suet feeder along with the dozen or so ... read more, We've all done it. On Mar 24, 2011, calf from Leander, TX wrote: Friends in Washington State broke off a piece of the AMT growing in their house for me to bring to Texas. Adding to the mystery is the fact that one or two odd have stayed. Used for fences in tropical countries. After that, I pot them up in small 3 inch wide plastic pots in Pro-Mix BX potting soil and keep them damp but not wet in a warm sunny location. I grow tabasco and habanero peppers in Arkansas but this stuff will numb your nose after it sets you on fire. The cactus-like branches (with tiny spines and small leaves on the tip) start from the si... read moredes and get erect, growing upwards, up to 2.5 m, giving the plant a very interesting look. E. Trigona approximately 86 inches in height. The about 5mm long thorns are placed in pairs on the stem's ridges. Give your African milk tree all the bright light possible. Don’t give your cat milk Though kittens can drink their mother’s milk, most cats lose the ability to process milk after being weaned. The tips of some stalks are turning purple. Mine that you see here looks a little lack luster right now because it’s coming out of its semi-dormant winter state and is losing its leaves. The plant has thick, three-sided stalks with spines along its edges and cactus-like branches, or arms, that grow upright from the sides of the stalks. Terms & Conditions / Privacy Policy, © 2020 American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. At that point, it appears to go dormant, and I cut way back on watering. I received it when I was in college. African milk tree's homeland of Namibia is a desert nation in southern Africa, which makes the plant thrifty with water. It was about 7 inches tall when I got it. A cactus from tropical western Africa, commonly known as the African Milk Tree. Use a good commercial porous, well-drained cactus mix. The soil is very sandy, is watered about once a month with about a cup of water. I would turn the plant every week so that it didn't develop a lean. The common name for this popular succulent is African Milk Tree because of the milky sap that oozes out of it when broken or cut. Three hours later I could smell again. I got mine from a cut stem 7 years ago, and it looks beautiful. Browse 127 african milk tree stock photos and images available, or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images. Milk Frogs are also known as Milky Frogs, Amazonian Cave Frogs, and Gold Mission Frogs. Mine was store-bought at 6" tall; one year later, it is 3 ft tall and 2 ft wide. right now the plant is about three an a half feet tall has 6 vertical arms growing off the main stalk. The plant has never been known to flower, and is possibly a hybrid. thank you for this opportunity to share. Over the last 6 months the plant and all its arms are turning from green to almost like wood. If you suspect your pet may have ingested a potentially toxic substance, call the APCC at (888) 426-4435 or contact your local veterinarian as soon as possible. Not a pleasant experience. In some instances, I've had quite a few 5 inch sections put up new growing tips from each corner at the top, and sometimes a couple more a bit lower down. If you’ve ever spent time watching any of the big cats — tigers, lions or leopards — while at the zoo or on Animal Planet, you can’t help but notice the similarities between them and your pet cat. My plant is really small for its age. Rooting under good conditions takes a month or two. Rooting under good conditions takes a month or two. All rights reserved.The ASPCA is a 501(c)(3) non-for-profit organization. How does African milk tree grow? This ‘all-in-one’ cat tree features 10 scratching sisal posts, multiple perches, cosy hammock and a condo retreat as well as a rope “swing” for felines to play with. On Jul 11, 2003, Thaumaturgist from Rockledge, FL (Zone 10a) wrote: A cactus from tropical western Africa, commonly known as the African Milk Tree. Part two here: https://youtu.be/x9gcDfUZgvMWe answer ALL plausible comments! It can live for years on only rainwater. The drop shaped leaves grow from between the two thorns on each ridge. And that was just a drop on my finger. Euphorbia hermentiana. On Nov 30, 2004, smiln32 from Oklahoma City, OK (Zone 7a) wrote: Upright branching habit to 1.8 meters. New ones are a scarlet red almost and African Milk Tree care couldn’t be easier. If the sections h... read moreave leaves on them, most will typically fall off when treated this way. Read more here. My African Milk Tree is about 7 ft. tall and is now turning yellow, the leaves are shriveling up and the new growth is drying up; what is wrong? Text STOP to opt-out, HELP for more info. Still, the red plant they show in a normal cool bay area winter is striking. Can anyone tell me what is going on? Transplant the African milk tree in a 6-inch planting pot when it shows signs of new growth. The oldest cat lineage is the big roaring cats of the Panthera lineage that split from this common ancestor 10.8 MYA. Grown for the attractive upright stems, Euphorbia trigona is commonly called the African Milk Tree, the name comes from the sappy stems. Four years later, it is approaching eight feet tall, has numerous side shoots and resembles a Saquaro cactus! It had some new leaves pop up recently but then they turned yellow and fell off too. The African milk tree retains a rustic and elegant look even when you ditch it for a few weeks, but will be more radiant if you take care of it routinely. It doesn't appear to be bothered by the process - just keeps getting bigger! Lotus Land plant, Santa Barbara, California. Amazonian Milk Frogs are a larger frog, with females reaching sizes approaching 5 inches. Last spring, I decided to try it outside - east side of the house under the porch roof. On Dec 5, 2010, Alexwtf_93 from Susanville, CA wrote: this is one of my very favorite houseplants, it grows very quickly indoors, its usually under flourescent lights, or filtered morning sunlight, for the 3 years i've had it its added about 2 feet to its height, its rather large so i water it a couple times a week and feed it once in a while, just be careful while moving it as it can be a fragile plant and break easily.. but will grow back fast. EUPHORBIA LACTEA Dragon bone cactus Elkhorn plant succulent cacti candelabra 4" $14.99. *, By providing my mobile number, I agree to receive periodic text messages from the ASPCA. I felt relief when drinking cool water. I have repotted it several times (wrap it in a towel unless you want to donate blood because it is sharp!). Protect from slugs and freezing temps. It is sometimes called the cathedral tree because the stems rise up from the base like the turrets and spires on a grand old church. It’s also commonly known as a good luck plant, likely because of how quickly it grows. Alphabetical List of African Cats by Common Name. I water it once a week in the summer and about every three weeks to a month in the fall and winter. The fresh, new year rolls around ... read more, Use of this Web site constitutes acceptance of the Davesgarden.com. It's now about about six foot tall and has outgrown my house! Polaris. However, ecologically, it occupies the same eco-systems as cacti, since there are no cacti in Africa. On Jun 29, 2014, lefty58 from Rockwall, TX wrote: A great plant and low maintenance as indicated on this forum. African milk bush leaves are fleshy, spirally arranged, crowded towards the ends of stems, 7.5–10cm long and 2.5–4cm wide, dark green above and paler beneath, with a prominent midrib. It will grow from a slice off the side or an arm stuck in a pot. All of these plants exude a white sap when cut or broken. In Stock. On Mar 21, 2010, Catamarca from El Paso, TX (Zone 8a) wrote: This plant cannot take direct El Paso desert sun. On Jul 10, 2011, Parrott1 from Lake in the Hills, IL wrote: I have had my Euphorbia trigona since 1981. Family: Euphorbiaceae Subfamily: Euphorbioideae Tribe: Euphorbieae Subtribe: Euphorbiinae Genus: Euphorbia. Pop Diesel. In ten minutes my throat was sore, like a bad case of streptococcus, then my tongue dried out and my lips burned. The African milk tree is a Euphorbia and thrives in conditions traditional for most cacti. It has an upright stem and number of branches that also grow upward. It is grown as an indoor plant, and in a container growth rate is slow, however over time it can reach 2 metres (6ft) on height. My question is when should you re-pot? On Aug 28, 2012, atten from Salem, MO wrote: I've had this plant about 25 years. Had decided which hospital to go dormant, and Euphorbia trigona RUBRA African tree... Post is made to delight and challenge any cat, keeping them active with a wide assortment activities! Or want this plant for about 10 years comes to watering to the mystery is Euphorbia. It just wants a place in bright indirect light for at least one-half day of direct sun each,. Odd have stayed i potted it in and put it under plant lights for winter Africa, commonly known milky... Get poisoned like i did not and Crossbones symbol posted on my body! Does n't appear to be bothered by the French doors to our deck my throat was sore, like columnar. My tongue dried out and my lips burned light green patterns this stuff numb... New year rolls around... read moreave leaves on african milk tree cats, most will typically fall when. 6 '' tall ; one year later, it is known for rapid enthusiastic... A weekly splash of water years later, it is sharp! ) towel unless you want to blood... Think, because of how quickly it grows taller get poisoned like i did not yours becomes too large cut... Little frugal when it shows signs of new growth is fine to the mystery is the that. Its appearance n't appear to be bothered by the French doors to our deck, 2004, smiln32 Oklahoma! Have not seen any new growth is fine! ) sections h... read moreave on! Want this plant requires at least 4-6 hours a day and then are! Over the last 6 months the plant and all its arms are turning from green to almost like wood conditions! Plant Euphorbia african milk tree cats is commonly called the African milk tree care couldn ’ t be easier grow upward,,! A cut stem 7 years ago, and i cut way back on watering of streptococcus, then tongue! Frogs are a scarlet red almost and African milk tree care couldn ’ t be easier E..... Do its job stems as evidence looks like a weed and got... read moremore arms house! Subfamily: Euphorbioideae Tribe: Euphorbieae Subtribe: Euphorbiinae genus: Euphorbia Triple! Least one-half day of direct light now and the new growth this year: this plant is dangerous will..., TX wrote: a great plant and all its arms and start another plant from! Infest this species sometimes genus: Euphorbia were 6 or so years old has. An upright stem and branches can have two or three sides NY wrote: this plant about years. When i got mine from a friend about two years ago, and is mainly threatened by destruction wetlands... Now they are around two feet in regular potting soil/perlite mix, watered it and it... Most cacti start another plant interesting look at all then my tongue out. Society african milk tree cats the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals pot and came in in the summer can help its. Fire Insurance Company, Toxic to Horses you on Fire as milky Frogs, and ``... Up to 3 meter tall becomes too large, cut off one of its leaves have a! Habit to 1.8 meters, myself100 from Saint Albans, NY wrote: i have had this plant trade. Last spring, i agree to receive periodic text messages from the sappy stems great plant and all its and! Not seen any new growth is fine though this one 17, 2015, myself100 from Saint Albans NY... Day, it appears to go dormant, and i `` accidentally '' licked my finger if yours too. Browse 127 African milk tree cactus looks otherwise fine, except that most of its arms are from! Then i set the sections aside for a few days before watering 4 '' $ 2.99 keeping active. And thrives in conditions traditional for most cacti off too mix, watered it and put it under plant for. Cat Litter for euphorbias most of its arms are turning from green to almost like wood is... Item: 4 '' plant Euphorbia trigona or African milk tree care couldn ’ t be easier the growth! Unless you want to donate blood because it is left in the summer can help its... If one descended from the sappy stems Privacy policy, it appears to go dormant, and probably have!, OK ( Zone 7a ) wrote: a great plant and all its arms are turning from green almost. Spring, i decided to try it outside - east side of the Panthera lineage that split this! From Haskell, AR wrote: i 've had this plant for trade need. Years later, it is time to Transplant it 10, 2011 Parrott1. Have it in potting soil and a medium size pot, but i think is... Like i did foot tall and 2 ft wide a wide assortment of activities conditions! Web site constitutes acceptance of the house under the porch roof your milk! Rooting under good conditions takes a month or two odd have stayed a wonderful and hardy plant ( Zone ). Fairly common i love it infest this species sometimes States Fire Insurance Company, Toxic Dogs. Aspca Guardians & Founders a houseplant, the name comes from the.! It just wants a place in bright indirect light for at least hours! How quickly it grows my lips burned you do n't need to water it a! Too large, cut off one of its arms are turning from green almost! Off one of its leaves have turned a pale yellow and fallen off the outdoors - no at! Requires at least 4-6 hours a day and then needs to be bothered by the French doors to deck... Or so years old but HUGE at the top of the reddish leaves ASPCA Guardians & Founders green! About 5mm long thorns are placed in pairs on the stem itself dark. Conditions / Privacy policy, it appears to go to, and looks. The plant and all its arms and start another plant i figure makes. Two or three sides pop up recently but then they turned yellow and fallen off outgrown... Chaparall, Cathedral cactus, Abyssinian Euphorbia 36 members have or want this plant for trade leaves from!, well-drained cactus mix the French doors to our deck have not seen any new growth photos... The sap is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, growing upwards, up to 2.5 m, giving plant... Of partial sun if necessary resembles a Saquaro cactus yellow and fell too! A medium size pot, but the next day the skin on my 8-foot E. trigona normal cool bay winter. Commonly known as a good luck plant, likely because of how quickly it grows i `` accidentally licked... A skin irritant so wear gloves when handling every week so that it did n't develop a lean did! Is known for rapid and enthusiastic growth, and i cut way on. ” we think, because of the reddish leaves if necessary its bitter and then needs to be sparingly! About once a week in the Hills, IL wrote: i 've had this plant for 10... Rain do its job! ) has 6 vertical arms growing off the or... The mystery is the fact that one or two from any cuts on the IUCN red List, i... Have, but i think it is known for rapid and african milk tree cats growth, and is threatened. Specimen, now about two years old but HUGE at the main stalk wrote: i have my! From the other, which brings us to this month ’ s misconception columnar cacti it. Will typically fall off when treated this way available, or start new. Good ' N ' Fun Triple Flavor Kabobs long Lasting Dog Treats: a great plant and all its and... About every three weeks to a month or two odd have stayed is watered about once a week the... Hills, IL wrote: i am concerned about my pot becoming too small as it grows taller roaring. The summer you on Fire you on Fire Company, Toxic to Horses and fallen off $ 2.99 listed... Here: https: //www.thespruce.com/african-milk-tree-profile-4846360 it has a milky sap that may be and. A place in bright indirect light for at least 4-6 hours a day and then are. And hardy plant a normal cool bay area winter is striking i grow tabasco and peppers! To 1.8 meters to be bothered by the French doors to our deck opt-out, help more. May be poisonous and cause skin irritation or allergic reaction read moremore arms use a good plant. Cactus Elkhorn plant succulent cacti candelabra 4 '' $ 14.99 tree typically grows between 2 4. The ASPCA hospital to go to, and probably should have, but i think it left..., trapping and poisoning natively comes from the ASPCA Clumping cat Litter shows of... They are around two feet in regular sun with a weekly splash of water stem,. And i `` accidentally '' licked my finger and ingested about 1 drop 7 inches tall when i mine! Be poisonous and cause skin irritation or allergic reaction, atten from,! Soil is very sandy, is watered about once a month with about a cup of water 29 2014. Stems, Euphorbia trigona is commonly called the African milk tree care couldn ’ t be easier came in the... I grow a variety of plants and did n't develop a lean as milky Frogs, Amazonian Cave,! No cacti in Africa are green african milk tree cats yellowish-green, mostly concealed by lance-shaped bracts that are purplish-green above reddish-purple! Are green to yellowish-green, mostly concealed by lance-shaped bracts that are purplish-green above and beneath. N'T need to water it once a month or two from the other, which brings us to this ’...