The 747-300 was launched in 1980 and was followed by the 747-400 in 1985. ", "J.A.L. [51], During later stages of the flight test program, flutter testing showed that the wings suffered oscillation under certain conditions. [279] It is located at Jinnah International Airport, Karachi. Boeing, Douglas, and Lockheed were given additional study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric and Pratt & Whitney for the engines. [123] The 747 also has split control surfaces and was designed with sophisticated triple-slotted flaps that minimize landing speeds and allow the 747 to use standard-length runways. ", "Customer Symposium Highlights Future Boeing 747 Models. The 747-300M features cargo capacity on the rear portion of the main deck, similar to the -200M, but with the stretched upper deck it can carry more passengers. Standard shipping containers are 8 ft (2.4 m) square at the front (slightly higher due to attachment points) and available in 20 and 40 ft (6.1 and 12 m) lengths. ", "Stratolaunch Flies World's Largest Plane for the First Time", "Boeing Outlines the "Value" of Its 747 Plans", "Boeing Shelves 747X to Focus on Faster Jet. The partial double-deck aircraft was designed with a raised cockpit so it could be converted to a freighter airplane by installing a front cargo door, as it was initially thought that it would eventually be superseded by supersonic transports. The 747X aircraft was to carry 430 passengers over ranges of up to 8,700 nmi (10,000 mi, 16,100 km). "Boeing Shuns Very Large Jets While Aiming for Longer Range. While some of the pieces for Boeing planes are delivered from farther away, the actual assembly of the airplanes occurs in Everett, Washington, at the Boeing Everett Factory. Most problematic was evacuation from the aircraft's upper deck; instead of using a conventional slide, volunteer passengers escaped by using a harness attached to a reel. Airbus competed with later variants with the heaviest versions of the A340 until surpassing the 747 in size with the A380, introduced in 2007. [42] To level the site, more than four million cubic yards (three million cubic meters) of earth had to be moved. ", The last B747-SP is going to retire on 15 June, "Iran Air retires last remaining pax B747-200", "Boeing 747-100/-200/-300/-SP airport report. Hot exhaust gasses caused a fire on the left wing. [191][192] As of July 2019[update], 331 747-400s remain in service. [297][298] Appearing in over 300 film productions[299] the 747 is one of the most widely depicted civilian aircraft and is considered by many as one of the most iconic in film history. ", "747-8F and 787 delivery dates come into focus", "Boeing 747-8I Set For Pre-Delivery Evaluation Flights In Germany", "The White House cuts $3.9 billion deal with Boeing for two new Air Force Ones", "Aboard America's Doomsday command and control plane", "Airborne Laser returns for more testing", "NASA Armstrong Fact Sheet: Shuttle Carrier Aircraft", "KC-33A: Closing the Aerial Refuelling and Strategic Air Mobility Gaps (PDF). [84]:86 The 300 series resulted from Boeing studies to increase the seating capacity of the 747, during which modifications such as fuselage plugs and extending the upper deck over the entire length of the fuselage were rejected. [100] The last 747-400s were completed in 2009. [7] In 1965, Joe Sutter left the 737 development program to design the 747, the first twin aisle airliner. [147] The aircraft was chosen by airlines wishing to serve major airports with short runways. [32], The project was designed with a new methodology called fault tree analysis, which allowed the effects of a failure of a single part to be studied to determine its impact on other systems. [203], The passenger version, named 747-8 Intercontinental or 747-8I, is designed to carry up to 467 passengers in a 3-class configuration and fly more than 8,000 nmi (15,000 km) at Mach 0.855. A total of 393 of the 747-200 versions had been built when production ended in 1991. ", "Boeing 747-8 Freighter Successfully Completes First Flight", "Pictures & Video: Boeing's 747-8F lifts off on maiden flight. Most -200Bs had an internally stretched upper deck, allowing for up to 16 passenger seats. The variant has 16% more payload capacity than its predecessor, allowing it to carry seven more standard air cargo containers, with a maximum payload capacity of 154 tons (140 tonnes) of cargo. [56] The program was further delayed when one of the five test aircraft suffered serious damage during a landing attempt at Renton Municipal Airport, site of the company's Renton factory. Other changes included adding more powerful engines and increasing the number of tires from two to four on the nose landing gear and from 16 to 20 on the main landing gear. [96] Some of the ideas developed for the 747X were used on the 747-400ER, a longer range variant of the 747-400. ", "First 747-400 Boeing Converted Freighter Redelivered to Cathay Pacific. [234], Like its predecessor, the 747X family was unable to garner enough interest to justify production, and it was shelved along with the 767-400ERX in March 2001, when Boeing announced the Sonic Cruiser concept. This page was last edited on 22 February 2021, at 12:19. While the first 747s were still being built, the device allowed pilots to practice taxi maneuvers from a high upper-deck position. [127] Virgin Orbit's 747-400, dubbed Cosmic Girl, carries the orbital-class rocket to cruise altitude, where the rocket is deployed and then carries its small satellite payload the rest of the way to orbit. [165], The 747-400 is an improved model with increased range. [46], In 1968, the program cost was US$1 Billion[47] (7.4B today). [81] Minor aerodynamic changes allowed the -300's cruise speed to reach Mach 0.85 compared with Mach 0.84 on the -200 and -100 models, while retaining the same takeoff weight. ", "Boeing Delivers First 747-300 Special Freighter To Atlas Air", "Technical Specifications – 747 Classics", "Qantas's final Boeing 747-300 heads for graveyard. [240], The last US passenger Boeing 747 was retired from Delta Air Lines in December 2017, after it flew for every American major carrier since its 1970 introduction. [167] The variant revived the 747-300 designation, which had been previously used on a design study that did not reach production. [70] Nonetheless, many flag-carriers purchased the 747 due to its prestige "even if it made no sense economically" to operate. [31][32] Pratt & Whitney was also working on the same principle and, by late 1966, Boeing, Pan Am and Pratt & Whitney agreed to develop a new engine, designated the JT9D to power the 747. [180] As a result of the Boeing 767 development overlapping with the 747-400's development, both aircraft can use the same three powerplants and are even interchangeable between the two aircraft models. [195] Modification of four aircraft was completed by February 2010. [86] Passenger, short range and combination freighter-passenger versions of the 300 series were produced. On September 30, 1968, the first 747 was rolled out of the custom-built Everett Plant, the largest building in the world by volume. This meant that it would be possible to support a 2-wide 2-high stack of containers two or three ranks deep with a fuselage size similar to the earlier CX-HLS project. [137] The -100BSR had a 600,000 lb (270 t) MTOW and was powered by the same JT9D-7A or General Electric CF6-45 engines used on the -100SR. On June 7, 2006, Tradewinds International Airlines Flight 444, a 747-200F, aborted a takeoff from Rionegro/Medellín-José María Córdova Airport and overran the runway. Instead of dropping away from the wing, the engine knocked off the adjacent engine and damaged the wing.[254]. Having tried replacing coach seats on its 747s with piano bars in an attempt to attract more customers, American Airlines eventually relegated its 747s to cargo service and in 1983 exchanged them with Pan Am for smaller aircraft;[75] Delta Air Lines also removed its 747s from service after several years. The type was certified by the FAA on September 26, 1973, with the first delivery on the same day. [124], For transportation of spare engines, the 747 can accommodate a non-functioning fifth-pod engine under the aircraft's port wing between the inner functioning engine and the fuselage. [19][20] During the ceremonial 747 contract-signing banquet in Seattle on Boeing's 50th Anniversary, Juan Trippe predicted that the 747 would be "…a great weapon for peace, competing with intercontinental missiles for mankind's destiny". A removable partition on the main deck separated the cargo area at the rear from the passengers at the front. On November 12, 1996, Saudi Arabian Airlines Flight 763, a 747-100B, collided with Kazakhstan Airlines Flight 1907, an, On March 5, 1999, Air France flight 6745, a 747-2B3F (F-GPAN) carrying 66. Deliveries are scheduled through 2022. On August 4, 1983, Pan Am Flight 73, a 747-100, struck a VASI light installation and its concrete base while taking off at Karachi International Airport, causing the nose gear to collapse backwards to the left, resulting in total destruction of the VASI light installation and damage to the forward cargo hold, floor of the first class section and the stairway leading to the upper deck. [86] The stretched upper deck (SUD) has two emergency exit doors and is the most visible difference between the -300 and previous models. The 747 was found to be largely immune to "Dutch roll", a phenomenon that had been a major hazard to the early swept-wing jets. The 747 is the basis for several government and military variants, such as the VC-25 (Air Force One) or the E-4 Emergency Airborne Command Post, and some experimental testbeds like the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. [63], On January 15, 1970, First Lady of the United States Pat Nixon christened Pan Am's first 747, at Dulles International Airport (later Washington Dulles International Airport) in the presence of Pan Am chairman Najeeb Halaby. ... Latest UK hospital deaths. The aircraft flew for the first time on September 9, 2006 in a test flight. [55] The problems delayed 747 deliveries for several months; up to 20 aircraft at the Everett plant were stranded while awaiting engine installation. No freighter version of this model was developed, but many 747-100s were converted into freighters. Boeing will pay $2.5 billion to settle a Justice Department investigation and admit that employees misled regulators about the safety of its 737 … Raised above the main deck, the cockpit creates a hump. [81] Increased maximum takeoff weight allows aircraft to carry more fuel and have longer range. [62] When economic problems in the US and other countries after the 1973 oil crisis led to reduced passenger traffic, several airlines found they did not have enough passengers to fly the 747 economically, and they replaced them with the smaller and recently introduced McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar trijet wide bodies[74] (and later the 767 and A300/A310 twinjets). Responding to requests from Japanese airlines for a high-capacity aircraft to serve domestic routes between major cities, Boeing developed the 747SR as a short-range version of the 747-100 with lower fuel capacity and greater payload capability. [166] After being made standard on the 747-300, the SUD was offered as a retrofit, and as an option to earlier variants still in-production. [150] A total of 45 747SPs were built,[4] with the 44th 747SP delivered on August 30, 1982. [102] The first delivery of the 747-8 went to Cargolux in 2011. 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